NAMA Day was hosted by the UNFCCC in partnership with the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (BMUB), the UK Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC), the German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ), the UN Environment Programme DTU Partnership (UNEP DTU), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), and the Ministry of Environment of Peru.
The aim of NAMA Day was to showcase how transformational Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are contributing towards moving developing countries along a low-emissions development trajectory. The three-hour event was organized in a series of panel discussions, and concluded with a poster exhibition and help desk to enable one-on-one interactions with a wide range of public and private international organizations involved in providing NAMA support.
Introducing this session, moderator Donald Cooper, UNFCCC Secretariat, noted NAMAs are an instrument to contribute towards national sustainable development and close the pre-2020 ambition gap.
Manuel Pulgar-Vidal, COP 20 President and Minister of Environment, Peru, offered five reflections on what NAMAs mean at the national level, noting that this process: entails recognizing “our responsibility” towards emission reduction; requires comprehensive planning to assure a sustainable future; provides an opportunity to build trust that countries can change and improve their behavior; enables a multi-sectoral, multi-stakeholder and multi-level planning approach that fosters good governance; and provides a mechanism for moving from talk to action.
Christiana Figueres, UNFCCC Executive Secretary, began by expressing solidarity with all those affected by Typhoon Hagupit in the Philippines, calling it a “sobering” reminder of the urgent need to link mitigation, disaster risk reduction and adaptation actions. She underscored the need for mitigation action before 2020, noting that NAMAs can help countries in this regard, but cautioned that they need to be based on national circumstances and integrated into the overall development planning process.
Rodrigo Suárez Castaño, Climate Change Director, Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, Colombia, noted the first step in bridging the country’s pre-2020 ambition gap is to understand its current and future emissions, through developing a greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and emissions scenario. He said the country’s low carbon development strategy is centered on three visions: inclusive and sustainable cities; sustainable production in territories of peace; and equitable access to energy.
Responding to questions from participants on how to position NAMAs within the development planning process, Pulgar-Vidal noted that in Peru, this involved making the case that combating climate change is a development issue by fully integrating NAMAs in national planning processes. Castaño highlighted the need to package climate change information in terms of co-benefits, saying that “if we change the language then other sectors can start to understand and we can have a joint process.”
On key messages for COP 20, Figueres said that countries have been building their capacity over time, starting with pilot mitigation projects to test technologies and institutional innovations, before scaling them into Program of Activities (PoAs) and NAMAs, and are now ready to “run the marathon” by developing their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs).
PANEL DISCUSSION ON NAMA FINANCING
This session, moderated by Yamil Bonduki, UNDP, discussed perspectives of private investors and development banks on opportunities to finance climate actions and remove barriers to NAMA implementation.
Katrin Enting, KfW Development Bank, discussed lessons from three NAMAs funded by the Bank in Latin America. She emphasized that NAMA criteria assist as a first indicator, but political alignment and support are critical to attract finance. She summarized key messages as, inter alia: keep it simple; use proven instruments, including equity guarantees and concessionary loans; bridge the tension between ambition and available financing; ensure implementing agencies have the requisite capacity; and involve development banks early in the process.
Martin Schoenberg, Climate Change Capital, presented on how to leverage private sector capital for NAMAs. He noted that the focus on project financing, which has been the main funding modality for climate projects in the past, does not attract the “mainstay” of the financial system, notably bonds and equity financing. He stressed that “industrial-scale corporate structures” are needed to fully capture the potential of renewables by aggregating smaller plants in order to create large-scale repeatable business. He further noted that emerging economies present a unique opportunity as investors are willing to forego immediate profits and “stay for the long haul.”
Camilo Rojas, Development Bank of Latin America (CAF), outlined the Bank’s support for NAMA implementation in the region, noting key lessons include the need for financing to be contextualized, and for countries to be supported in undertaking a structured INDC process. He noted that a key factor in accessing NAMA financing is the “appetite and commitment” of stakeholders around the NAMAs.
During discussions, participants highlighted, inter alia, the need to: move from planning to action; mobilize additional funding to meet current demand in the NAMA registry; target a range of donors to fund different stages of the NAMA process; and explore ways to speed up the NAMA readiness stage as “private funders are waiting to invest.”
PRESENTATION OF NAMAs AND INFORMATION ON SUPPORT
During this final session, moderated by Sudhir Sharma, UNEP DTU Partnership, participants heard the experiences of NAMA financiers, as well as countries that are currently preparing or implementing NAMAs.
Miriam Ott, NAMA Facility, highlighted ongoing projects funded under the Germany-UK initiative, noting it is the first to provide earmarked funds for NAMA implementation. She said the Facility has defined clear selection criteria based on mitigation ambition, sustainable development co-benefits and potential to drive transformational change.
Javier Andrés Hubenthal, Ecuador, highlighted the country’s emission reduction programmes, noting the NAMA has been funded from own resources as well as leveraging concessionary funding.
Angelo Sartori, Chile, described the country’s forestry NAMA, which aims to reduce emissions related to forest degradation and regenerate native forests. He said the country is exploring incentive mechanisms for smallholder farmers to conserve forest resources, as well as pursuing South-South cooperation with neighboring countries.
Telmo De la Cruz Muscari, Peru, described the country’s sustainable transport NAMA, noting it has developed a policy matrix to achieve the aim of an integrated urban transport system. He said among the expected co-benefits are less noise and stress, shorter travel times and improved road safety. He announced that the NAMA has been pre-selected for funding under the NAMA Facility’s second call.
Prasert Sirinapaporn, Thailand, highlighted the country’s roadmap to reduce emissions from refrigeration and cooling equipment. He said the the NAMA aims to enhance private-public collaboration, ensure effective steering and coordination, define a transparent and accountable work process, and realize innovations beyond business as usual.
Chebet Maikut, Uganda, said NAMA formulation in the country has been a participatory process that identified four critical sectors with high transformational potential for the local community. He said the eight priority NAMAs developed as a result, have been submitted to the NAMA registry.
Paola Visca, Uruguay, said the National Coordinating Entity led by the Ministry of Environment brought together all the key sectors to develop a national plan to respond to climate change. She highlighted the energy, transport and agricultural sectors as priority NAMA areas.
Faustin Munyazikwiye, Rwanda, outlined the NAMA preparation process, highlighting: a sectoral analysis of critical sectors; determination of baseline emissions in 2010; and undertaking of enabling activities, such as capacity building of local stakeholders. He said the preparation of seven NAMA information notes is currently underway.
Gina Paniagua Sánchez, Vice-Minister for Agriculture and Livestock, Costa Rica, introduced the country’s livestock NAMA, noting it aims to contribute to a more eco-competitive livestock sector. She highlighted some of the expected co-benefits of integrating the NAMA with a broader focus on climate smart agriculture, including soil conservation and restoration, improved ecosystem services and improved incomes for farmers.
Vahakn Kabakian, Lebanon, described the country’s NAMAs for the waste and transport sectors, noting they are expected to contribute to emissions reductions of 30% and 70% respectively, by 2040.
Closing the session, Cooper emphasized that the time has come to put aside the talk and start doing business. He expressed hope that many more NAMA partners would come on board “on the road to Paris.